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Vol. 6, No. 12 OCTOBER 1915 PRICE 25 CENTS 






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OCTOBER 191.5 



>i . 



COl'VUllillT, I.S!i«. [tV IIAKI'KR A imilTMEKS 



IT is not the purpose of this article to 
recount by successive stages tlie history 
of the art of Howard Pyle nor to dwell at 
length upon any single one of the thousands 
of liis illustrations.* 

If the author can draw aside, for a 
moment, the veil that surrounded the 
intimate life that existed between Howard 
l*yle and iiis ])upils and by concrete ex- 
ample give the reader an inkling of the 
generous and lovable character of the mati 
who was able, by unaided efforts to place 
upon the page of illustrative art the seal 
of the master — then the mission of this 
story will have been accomplished. For 
as Mr. Ken von Cox savs: '*You cannot 

*'rhe greater part, of llowarcl Pyle's work was iden- 
tifietl with the Harper publications, and it is through 
tlioir M:t?iierosity that the article is illunumited with 
reproductions of his work. 

have the art without the num. and when 

you have the man you have the art." 

* ' * * 

Howard I*yle was practically a self-taught 
artist. Apart from a short time spent in 
New York and at Chadds Ford, Pennsyl- 
vania, about all of his work was done in 
Wilmington. Del. There he built himself 
a studio and later in 1900, upon the same 
plot of ground, a second building wherein 
he conducted a school for a number of 
years. His earlier work, from the first 
published drawing, about the year 1870, 
to 1894 (when he became the Director of 
Illustration at Drexel Institute) was pro- 
duced without the use of full color. Dur- 
ing that time he achieved for himself the 
lasting name of one of the greatest, if not 
the greatest illustrator in lilack ami white 
the world has ever seen. 






But even at tliat time a strong sense of 
color pervaded his work. There was a fine 
distinction of tone value and suggestion of 
absolute color as had not been produced 
before by means of such a limited palette. 
There was a difference between the green 
coat and the red vest. The vivid heat of a 
tropical sun and the cool of the shadow^ were 
all faithfully translated, and the reader has 
but to refer to the reproductions accom- 
panying the article to more fully under- 
stand what might seem to tlie average 
observer to be quite impossible — that is, to 
produce color effects with the use of no 
color at all. 

It was not entirely a sense of color and a 
knowledge of drawing that made his illus- 
trations what they were: there was a 
** something" infinitely greater in them — 
an actual living in his creations that lifted 
them, even in the early efforts, from the 
commonplace. That particular truth in 
his work that Mr. Pyle called "mental 
projection " will be dwelt upon later. 

Up to the time of his Drexel experience 
ami his establishing a summer-school at 
Chadds Ford, Howard Pyle had not 
accustomed himself to the use of a full 
palette. But when the duties of an 
instructor devolved upon him, it became 
necessary to instruct in coh)r. And it is 
from that time his professional bfe was very 
closely interwoven w^ith that of the pupil. 
He developed his own art even as he 
brought out the art of those under him. 
He often said he secured much more from 
the pupil than he gave. That may have 
been true, i>ut it is absolutel\' certain that 
to those pupils who studied with him aiul 
wliose W'Ork appears nowadays in the 
various periodicals and upon the walls of 
various institutions, there was given a 
practical founchitlon in art such as could 
be securec] in no other school. Certainly a 
sense of eternal obligation should be theirs, 
for he saved them at least five to ten years 
of laborious efforts to "arrive." And not 
one penny for instruction was charged for 
all the many hours he gave to his school in 

Surely no man without a soul possessed 
of unbounded love for his fellow creatures 
and withal as honest of purpose would 
have given so freely of his precious time to 
his students. I mention this because it 

may give to the reader a somewhat better 
understanding of Howard Pyle's ow^n char- 
acter and of why it was so much of the 
charm of life and that same love of human- 
ity appears in his paintings. 

It was his great desire to instill in the 
minds of the students his ideas and methods 
so that they would be carried on after his 
death. This, he felt, could be better done 
in a school of his own rather than in a single 
department of a large institution. And 
so there came about, while the summer 
school was in progress at Chadds Ford, 
the inception of what eventually proved 
to be his school of illustration in Wilming- 
ton. Here it was, by means princij)ally 
of a class in composition, that he endeav- 
ored to make the pupil think for himself. 
He strove to stimulate and help the imagi- 
nation with the ultimate idea always to 
make the picture pracfical and of some use 
in the ivorld. And to this end there was 
always the physical example of his own 
j)roductions. We were called, now and 
then, to come within his own work-sho]), 
there to see the pictures that might be 
under way. Very often, then, he would 
talk to us about art, and it seemed to me 
then and even stronger now in memory, 
that the great artist was, at such times, 
very close to the great truths of art. He 
would caution the young student not to 
be led astray by fancies and trickery, but 
to hold up always the mirror of nature as a 
supreme guide. 

And it might not be amiss to illustrate 
by a concrete example, Howard Pyle's 
great love for nature and his insatiable 
longing to open the eyes of his pupils to 
the same wondrous truths. 

It was his custom to take us upon 
frequent excursions through the low hill 
country of Chadds Ford. Upon these 
gentle voyages through field and wood- 
land, there was the subtle pointing out of a 
piu'ple, of broken color in a whitewashed 
wall, of all the delicate gradations of tone 
and value, the knowledge of which is not 
always accredited to the varied eciuipment 
of an illustrator. 

I recall most vividly an October day, 
clear and cool, with a touch of winter in the 
hazy air. W'ith easel and canvas within 
the shadow of a barn Mr. Pyle had been 
working from the models — a team of white 







horses and a plough-boy, posing in the 
autumn sunlight. As the light of after- 
noon faded and the chill of a frosty air 
crept up from the valley, the artist laid 
aside the brushes and called some of his 
pupils to go with him in search of ad- 
venture. We were glad to relax and to 
enter into a short interval of, perhaps, well- 
earned rest. We followed the windings of 
a small stream that brought us finally to a 
broad opening and the summit of a hilL 
On the crest of this gentle knoll stood an 
oak — a wonderful, radiant picture, sil- 
houetted against the sky. Mr. Pyle stopped 
and drank it in as one athirst. 

"Look," he said, "just look at it!'* 

"It's like the exquisite creation of a 
worker in metal, a great yellow thing with 
plate after plate of burnished gold tow^er- 
ing up against the arch of heaven." 

"Yes, that is it," he continued, with a 
tenderness and reverence so characteristic 
of him. 

"After all, it is not a mere inanimate 
tree with its leaf turned yellow, it's fashioned 
as a human being with a trunk, arms and 
fingers, all clothed in shining garments, 
standing there to reflect the glory of the 
Divine Maker." 

How simple and how true it was. I 
doubt if a single one present that October 
day has forgotten the translation of what 
might otherw^ise have appealed as common- 
place, into a world of divine purpose, 
leagues beyond the shell that surrounded 
our own feeble efforts. 

Of such a nature were the lasting truths 
gathered upon those pleasant walks of a 
late afternoon with How-ard Pyle acting as 
interpreter and friend. 

That appreciation of the basic truths 
of nature, with its fragmentary groups of 
human beings, was divided and subdivided 
by Mr. Pyle into the most minute detail. 
Nothing seemed to be too small for careful 
consideration. In working upon his own 
pictures, after the broad lay-in, he would 
complete part with a loving care, that to use 
his own phraseology "was the projecting 
of one's mind into the picture and the 
elimination of one's self." "It was not suffi- 
cient," he would state, *'to say here we 
will have a field with perhaps a man 
ploughing. Such a statement means noth- 
ing more to the observer than the usual 

observation tliat 'this is a fine day/ But 
when that self-same field is divided into 
its gentle slopes and rises, with its growth 
of grasses and flowering things; w4th the 
play of sunlight and the shadow of the 
soaring hawk; when the ploughman be- 
comes a real personality and when the flock 
of crowds follows the freshly turned furrow — 
then, and only then does the artist lift the 
man and the field from the commonplace 
into the realm of true art." 

When such a picture is painted the lay- 
man is interested and the artist wonders 
why he never thought of it in just that way. 

That careful consideration of detail and 
thought of the subject as has just been 
mentioned, w^as one of the lessons iVIr. 
Pyle endeavored to teach his pupils. He 
had mastered it himself. By a quarter of a 
century of work; in the production of 
thousands of drawings, he had worked out 
W'hat he called "The Theory of Mental 
Projection." This theory being the "some- 
thing" in his art that was mentioned earlier 
in the article. 

What is meant by the theory of mental 

It is more than obvious from the bare state- 
ment that it has to do with projecting one's 
mind into the subject in hand, whether 
it be, as in Howard Pyle's case, paint- 
ing or writing. But that is not suflicient. 
The product of the mind plus one's indi- 
viduality very often accompany one another 
in this matter of mental projection. The 
product then becomes a mannerism and 
not a masterpiece. But when the soul 
of the mind evolves a thought, first in its 
entirety and then in its most minute detail 
and the picture is painted with all of its 
color upon that curtain that covers the soul 
of the mind: then if the artist has the power 
to reproduce that on canvas without any 
interference of his own preconceived idea, 
then indeed has he mastered that truth Mr. 
Pyle so aptly called "Mental Projection." 

Let us for a moment see wherein Howard 
Pyle's pictures exemplify this theory. His 
paintings of American colonial life and 
those of the Buccaneer are known through- 
out the world. It is not that they are well 
composed and well drawn; they are, to be 
sure. But they breathe forth such a veri- 
table atmosphere of truth that they seem 
to be contemporary and not a product of 






A SAiJjiRs s\\ i;i:riiKAiiT 



now AKl) PYLE 




the present day. It mattered not if it was 
the struggling continental or tlie swaggering 
buccaneer; witliin the four walls of the 
Wilmington studio there lived for the time 
Blackbeard and Kidd with the flaming 
tropical sky and the treasure of the dead. 
And then by way of contrast to such pic- 
tures, the great Washington; the suffering 
men at Valley Forge; and the nuiny dra- 
matic incidents pertaining to tlie saving 
of a nation, are visualized upon the canvas. 
How difficult and yet how simple when one 
has mastered the problem of mental pro- 

When Howard Pyle was painting **Tlie 
Battle of Bunker Hill/* he told the writer 
he could actually smell tlie smoke of the 
conflict and if his fellow workers in New 
York called him '*The Bloody Quaker" 
it was only because he so lived in his work 
he actually seemed to have that element 
existent in his j)hysical being. As a matter 
of fact Howard Fyle was always a gentle 
man, kind, loving and generous — generous 
to a fault. But it was the ability to live 
in the picture that, for the moment, trans- 
formed him to the character he was paint- 

This theory of mental projection was 
ever uppermost in his mind even in the 
moments of relaxation and pla\\ 

I recall just such another fall day at 
Chadds Ford, such as I have described 
before — save that it was later in the month 
of October, Mr. Pyle had been working 
hard all day and late in the afternoon, as 
was his custom, he asked some of the 
students to go with him for a walk across 
the fields. We discovered later the real 
object was to gather some nuts that ripened 
during the cold nights. Now it so hap- 
pened the hickory trees bortlered a small 
stream and many of the nuts had dropped 
into the clear cold water. We gathered all 
we could find about on the ground and 
then looked with longing eyes at the yellow 
spots on the creek-bed, 

''Well," .said Mr. Pyle, "it's a pity to 
leave those nuts; they're very good, and 
there's only one way to get them." 

With that he removed his shoes and 
stockings, rolled up his trousers and waded 
into that icy water. With sweater and 
shirt sleeves turned back he went about 
salvaging the nuts. Some of us followed 

and shortly the stream was entirely cleared. 
There followed then one of those wonderful 
moments that ilhnninated just wliat Mr, 
Pyle meant by projecting one's self in the 
picture. The water was cold; it was icy 
cold, and suddenly Mr. Pyle realized that 
fact — now that the fun was over. Turning 
to us he said with great emphasis and with 
a favorite expression : 

''By Jove!" boys, "this is the sort of 
tiling you must get into your work. If you 
are painting the icy water you must feel it. 
The poor fellow at \'alley Forge felt it and 
so did the ragged lot that marched on the 
Hessians at Trenton. I don't believe it's 
possible to ])aint a picture of that kind 
unless you feel the cold even as you feel 
it now!" 

AYe stepped from tlie stream, clothed 
ourselves, gathered the baskets and trudged 
liomeward across the fields. In such a 
manner was a great truth driven home. 
Some thirteen years later Mr. Pyle laid 
aside his brushes forever. 

He * 9k 

Beyond that ancient art center, Florence, 
on the road to Chertosa, stands a Presby- 
terian cemetery. And there, among many 
inscriptions to those who have i)assed, is 
this simple statement: 


Born March 5, 1853 
Died Nov. 9, 1911 

The usual competitions for the American 
Academy in Rome Fellowships were held 
this year and announcement of the winners 
has recently been made as follows: The 
Fellowship in Architecture was awarded to 
Philip T. Shutze, of CoIuml)ia University 
and Georgia School of I'echnology; the 
Fellowshij) in Painting was awarded to 
Russell Cowles, National Academy of De- 
sign, New York; the Fellowship in Sculp- 
ture was awarded to Joseph E. Renier, 
National Academy of Design, New York; 
and the Fellowship in Landscape Archi- 
tecture was awarded to Edward G. Lawson, 
Gornell University. The works submitted 
in competition this year were notable as 
lieing of a higher grade than those of any 
previous competition of the Academy, The 
winners are expected to arrive in Rome by 
October 1st. 




THE American tapestries which were 
displayed in the comprehensive exhi- 
bition of American Industrial Art set forth 
in the National ]VIuseum at Washington 
from iVIay to Se})teml)er under the auspices 
of the American Federation of Arts, were 
the work of four American nuikers. all of 
whom are located in or near New York City. 
At the Pananui Exposition in San Fran- 
cisco only two of these makers are repre- 
sented. Heretofore exhibitions of Ameri- 

can tapestries have been conhneil to one 
maker, so that the exhibition in the 
National ^luseum was rightly described 
as the only comprehensive one ever held. 
The finest piece of tapestry shown in 
that exhibition was a damasse panel in 
the style of the Gobelins, with medallion 
after Boucher, and mat ground of the type 
that frames Mr. Morgan's five famous 
Gobelin ''Don Quixote" tapestries now on 
loan at the Metropolitan Museum, New 






\ork. This panel was a\vur(l<'(l a (irand 
Prize at the Louisiana Purcliasr Exposition 
in St. Louis, and was commeiKkHl hy the 
French jurors as in every way ec(ual to Uie 
work of the Gobelins. Tlir residence of a 
New York haidver of inlei-national repu- 
tation contains a set of similar panels, 
with of course different scenes after Boucher 
in each medallion, hv the same maker. 

letters L. K., the initials of the proprietor 
of the sho}) that made it. The Bouelier 
panel spoken of al)o\'e also hears the woven 
monogram and s\<in oi the maker. 

Another ])ane] in the st\'le of the French 
eij^hteenth century was the one at the left 
of the screen in tlie view of the exliihitiou 
given herewith. Tliis panel was an Ameri- 
can cop>' of one woven at Aubusson and 

H.CK I \|-|.'- IIO 

Ml \K 1 1;\ .\ 

The cantonuiere that hunt:; ab(»ve and 
around this ])anel at the Xalioiud Museum 
is in tlie same style, and illustrates what 
effective frames for doors and windows can 
be woven in tapestry. Similar in style 
are the panels of the Louis XV folding 

The next finest piece ()f weaving was a 
Louis XVI portiere with exquisite pastel 
flowers on cream quadrille tlanuisse ground 
that interestingly illustrated one of the 
deHglitful texture effects possible only in 
tapestry. This portiere was signed in the 
bottom selvage, on the right, witli the 

based on the design of Boucher. The 
Eouis X\' chair that is seen standing ap- 
I>ropriate]y beside it. is upholstered not in 
woven tapestry but in needle tapestry 
(petit poinfi. The production of needle- 
work coverings for furniture is already an 
inq)ortant industry in several American 
decorative shops, and competes success- 
fully with the imported coverings of the 
same kind, many of which are purchased 
as *' antiques." It is mucli more difficult 
to distinguish partial or entire imitations 
of old needlework, than it is to tell new- 
woven tapestries from old. The texture of 







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V/ 1 


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tapestry (It'fciK Is it oltstiiiately fromcouiiter- 

Oddly enough two of the most interest- 
ing chair hacks exhitjited (but not Dlus- 
trated) tliough executed in tapestry were 
based on needlework. In other words, 
they were woven to resemble Old English 
petit point furniture coverings, and for use 
on furniture that hitherto has commonly 
been upholstered in needlework. Of 
course, I am aware tliat decorative moral- 
ists of the puristic type will condemn this 
and all imitations of one material in 
another, just as they condemn Robert 
Adam for the wooden imitations of drapery 
lambrequins at Osterly, or his inlay repro- 
ductions of fabric sunbursts. But as there 
are the same moralists wdio are blind to the 
loss of texture perception produced by 
generations of brush and pencil representa- 
tions, I am inclined to stand firm with the 
statement that "the value of an imitation 
depends entirely upon its quality; and the 
imitation that in merit surpasses the 
original will, by persons of good judgment 
and right appreciation, be preferred," 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centu- 
ries in Europe picture embroideries were 
displaced and crowded out by picture imi- 
tations of them in tapestry, imitations that 
soon developed a technique of their own 


and surpassed what was imitated. If 
modern American tapestry imitations of 
Old English needlework develop a special 
tapestry technique that is more attractive 
at the same price, or equally attractive at a 
less price, then these imitations deserve the 
success that has already attended their 
production. I regard it as vitally signifi- 
cant that in the attempt to reproduce 
needlework texture, American tapestry 
weavers have rechscovered some of the 
secrets of Gothic and Renaissance tapestry 
texture, secrets thrown away during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the 
effort to copy paintings exactly, and in 
tapestry to secure the comparatively 
textureless efft*cts of paint. 

I am sorry that it is necessary to admit 
that the tapestries exhibite<l in the style of 
the Renaissance were not as good of their 
kind as those in the style of the French 
eighteenth century. The same is apt to be 
true of reproductions and creations in other 
forms of decorative art — architecture, fur- 
niture, stained glass, sculpture and paint- 
ings. It is easier for artists and artisans 
of today to understand the art of the 
eighteenth than of the sixteenth century. 
The scale of the eighteenth is more in pro- 
portion with modern ideas, and there is an 
exaggeration of the individuality of details 



i.oris XVI I'oKTiKKK WITH (in:.\\i ( ijamassk (iumixi) 

THi; i:i)(iKWATi;K t.M'ksthy i,onMs 


which wouhl have shcH-kccl those who in the 
fifteenth ami sixteenth eenlnries regarded 
riiytlun of the whoh* as the inevitable dis- 
tinction of a masterpiece. 

The small frieze, Caritas, illustrated on 
this page and I lie panels of the screen 
illustrated (»n page 44'-2 obviously repro- 
duced numy of the crudities as well as 
some of the beauties added to tapestries 
by four hundred years of wear and tear. 
They were plainly intended to appeal to 
purcliasers who want new tapestries to 
look like old ones, and who regard age as 
the prime factor in the creation of beauty. 
Yet even in these there was a texture 
quality an<l a de\eIoj>inent of line effects 
which showed an ai>preciation of the 
difference l)etween ril)bed tapestry and 
flat painting. 

More pretentious and much more in- 
teresting than these, though not particu- 
larly well woven, was the long frieze shown 
in the general view, and the wide-bordered 
panel at the right of it. Both showed an 
intention to return to the methods of the 
sixteenth century, but failed from lack of 
loving familiarity with ancient exami)les. 
Much more successful from the weave 
point of view was the coarse-ril)bed 
tapestry rug (only eight ribs to the inch) 
hanging beneath the frieze, on the right. 
The maker of this rug has been especially 
fortunate in the use of coarse textures for 
both floor and wall coverings, and has done 
much to introduce American design aiul 
American motifs into American tapestries. 
However, the best piece exhibited by him 
in the National Museum, the piece only 
partly showing at the extreme right in the 
same photograph, was a direct copy of one 


of the large-leaf Renaissance verdures on 
the landing at the head of the stairway in 
the Decorative Arts Wing of the Met- 
ropctlitan Museum, New York. Perhaps 
the lesson to be learned from this is tliat 
one should creep before trying to \\ii\k, 
and that a prere(|uisite to the making of a 
modern masterj>iece in tapestry is a compre- 
hensive knowledge of the design and weave 
technique of ancient ones. I am positive 
that the art patron who, for presentation 
to museums in various parts of the United 
States, sliould have woven under competent 
direction spiritetl copies of the finest ancient 
tapestries, would render a great service not 
only to those museums Init also to the 
nuikers and the weavers employed to do 
the work, and to the prt>motion of the 
renaissance of tapestry weaving in America. 

Of the four plants now making American 
tapestry and exhibiting at the Xational 
^luseum, the oldest and largest was estab- 
lished in 1893 by William Baumgarten & 
Company; the second, by the Herter Looms 
in 1908: the third, by Pottier and Stymus 
in 1910; the youngest and at present the 
most active, by the Edgewater Tapestry 
Looms in 19K>. All of these plants are 
located in New York City except the last, 
which is in Edgewater, N. J. The total 
number of weavers employed — almost all 
Frenchmen from A jbusson, or their sons — 
is about thirty. Some of those formerly 
here are now back fighting in the trenches. 

In conclusion I would add, that while 
this exhibition of American tapestries as I 
said in my opening paragraph, was "the 
only comprehensive one ever held,'* it 
l)y no means did entire justice to what has 
actually l)een produced in America. The 




most important American tapestries are 
those woven for definite positions in private 
residences and public buildings, from which 
they could not be dislodged for exhibition 
purposes. Consequently the failure of tlie 
exhibition to consist entirely of master- 

pieces, and to seem harmoniously assembled 
and well hung, must be attributed not to 
lack of good will or fine accomplishment 
on the ]nirt of the makers, but to circum- 
stances beyond their control and inherent 
in the nature of their industry. 



ENTIRELY aside from such commer- 
cial benefit as may have accrued from 
world's fairs of the past, there has been 
given to the fine arts a distinct stimulus 
through their instrumentality. To the 
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 
probably owes in very large part its subse- 
quent interest, her artistic development as 
demonstrated by tlie Art Institute of 
Chicago most notably, and in very strong 
measure by the great lake front improve- 
ments which have been going on almost 
steadily since that time. In the field of 
architecture the Cliicago fair struck a note 
which certainly has not been equalled since 
then and it probably never will be equalled 
again in the constructions of expositions. 
The pity of it is that of the ''Majestic 
White City" scarcely anything now stands. 
The Seattle fair, while not approaching 
Cliicago in magnitude, introduced one 
interesting feature; auz., the i)ermanency 
of certain of the buildings. The San Diego 
Exposition has retained tliis idea, and many 
of the structures will stand long after the 
Exposition has become a thing of the past. 
So far as magnitude is concerned, San 
Diego, of course, made no attempt to rival 
Chicago, neither did it make any attempt 
to rival San Francisco, whose Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition opened a 
few weeks after the San Diego Exposition. 
But aside from the permanent features, 
San Diego has contributed to world's fair 
arcliitecture one of the most important 
ideas which world's fair history has chroni- 
cled — the development in the United States 
of the Spanish-Colonial school. Because 
of the dominance of the architectural 
splendor at San Diego, this feature is 
worthy of considerable study. The men- 
tion of "Spanish-Colonial" stirs in the 

mind of the layman a recollection of 
California mission architecture, and not a 
few visitors to the coast have gone to San 
Diego expecting to see the missions rebuilt 
at the Exposition grounds. They have 
seen excellent types of the mission but they 
have seen a great deal more, for tlie Spanish 
Colonial includes vastly more than the 
mission type of architecture. 

The discovery of the New World by 
Christopher Columbus can be considered, 
of course, as the start of Spanish develop- 
ment in the west. It was only a few years 
later when Balboa came to the mainland 
and in rapid succession, there came Cortez, 
Pizzaro, Coronado and other conquista- 
dores, bringing with them a rabble of 
soldiers and common adventurers. The 
liistory of their exploits in Central and 
South America, in the course of which 
they managed to strip the Aztecs and 
Incas of the enormous wealth that the 
ancient red men had piled up, is fairly 
familiar with every one who knows any- 
thing of early American history. Much 
less is known, however, of the artistic 
development which followed the early 
conquests and went hand in hand with the 
later economic development, such as it was. 
For a long time Spain had been dominated 
by the Moors; against the Moors were 
pitted small states in the Spanish peninsula, 
none of them strong enough to offer any 
effective opposition to the Oriental people. 
At length came the marriage of Ferdinand 
and Isabella which united two of the 
strongest principalities and rallied to their 
support other small states. This was the 
beginning of the end of Moorish occupancy 
and domination of Spain. In a very short 
time the new Spanish monarchy had 
thrown practically all of the Moors out 
















of the peninsula, but Vjeforc throwing them 
out had taken pains to deprive them of 
every tiling which the Spanish conquerors 
could seize. The Moors carried with them 
a good deal of movable property, but left 
behind them their palaces and the greater 
part of their wealth. Up to that time 
the Spanish people had subsisted in the 
most meagre way; the country was wretch- 
edly poor and the people who inhabited 
it were consequently poverty-stricken. 
There wxre no great buildings to speak of, 
other than those which the Moors had built 
and controlled absolutely. Thus a people 
whose opportunities had not made possible 
the development of taste were suddenly 
endowed with more wealth than they had 
any idea existed. It was somewhat of a 
benevolent despotism for a time and the 
wealth stolen from tlie Moors was really 
fairly well divided among the Spanish con- 
querors, geographically at least. 

Equipped with this vast wealth, the 
Spanish people proceeded to spend it in 
such a way as to get the greatest possible 
display, thereby showing that the nouveaux 
riches are by no means a present-day de- 
velopment. The only difference was that 
instead of putting the money into paintings 
and yachts, automobiles and extravagant 
dinners, the Spaniards put it into something 
where they thought the display would be 
as great as anywhere else, viz., into resi- 
dences and semi-public buildings. Before 
this wealth had been assimilated, there was 
going from the new world a still more 
colossal amount in the form of the metals 
stolen from the American Indians, and 
before that wealth had been assimilated, 
there had begun the tremendous flood of 
American products which the Spanisli 
settlers were developing and sending home. 
So much for economic conditions in this 

Now take into consideration what was 
happening to the adventurers who had 
followed the Spanish leaders into Central 
America. In order to maintain discipline, 
the leaders had allowed their soldiers to 
take just about what they chose from the 
treasure caves that they uncovered. Thus 
ordinary soldiers suddenly became equipped 
with an enormous amount of convertible 
securities. Having lived a little time in 
America, most of them decided to go back 

to Spain and spread their wealth be- 
fore their former acquaintances, and tluis 
there started the movement back to Spain. 
Arriving there, the veterans proceeded 
to make a much more lavish display than 
had been made by their companions that 
had remained in Spain. It is generally 
understood that Cortez was entirely il- 
literate; that is certainly true of most of 
liis lieutenants and practically all of Iiis 
common soldiers. It is not to be wondered 
at that architecture went mad. There 
were no artisans or artists in Spain at the 
time, for there had been nothing to en- 
courage them. Hence the newly endowed 
Spaniards sent to Italy and obtained real 
artists; they sent to France, even to Ger- 
many and to Greece and to the Orient. 
It was a time when architecture was par- 
ticularly florid anyway, and under the 
encouragement of the wealtli which the 
Spaniards were ^\illing to lavish on their 
building, and under the further impetus 
of a shocking taste which would not be 
gainsaid in view of the fact that the owner 
of that taste also owned the funds, Si)anish 
architecture developed into probably the 
most extravagant forms which architecture 
has ever seen. Out of this sprang the 
Spanish Colonial. 

The conquistadores soon discovered that 
they were not picked up by their old ac- 
quaintances as they expected to be; they 
found that there was a profound distinction 
between castes on the Spanish peninsula 
and the old aristocracy refused to have 
anything to do with the newly rich soldiers. 
It was only natural that the great majority 
of these soldiers conseciuently decided to 
retiu-n to America where they Avere held 
in more respect, largely because of the 
force of arms. And thus began another 
l)ig movement across the water. In 
America for decades there were no artists or 
architects whatever. There were not even 
skilled artisans. The soldiers had spent 
in Spain only sulTicient time to note the 
extraordinary change in the appearance 
of their old cities. Previously they had 
seldom seen the outside of a single good 
building, and as the only good buildings 
of that day were churches and cathedrals, 
it was unlikely that they had ever seen 
the inside of any; but impressed as they 
were bv the violent beauties which thev 



had seen during their brief stay, they 
carried a hazy recollection back to America 
with them and in the cities of new Spain 
proceeded to build strnctnres as nearly as 
possible like those which they had just left. 
There were no plans to work from and only 
the hazy ideas which the Spaniards were 
able to present to such architects as they 
found. Moreover there were no skilled 



artisans whatever, and all the buildings 
liad to be erected by Indian labor. Enough 
is known of Indian skill from the ancient 
cities which have ])een unearthed in recent 
decades to know that the Indians did 
have a great deal of artistic ability, but 
it is entirely impossible to suppose that 
they could have jumped into the new 
field of work and imitated the white hand 




with any degree of accuracy. The detail 
was sloughed almost without exception. In 
general lines Spanish architecture was 
imitated with a fair degree of accuracy, 
but on close examination, a wide difference 
is seen. Then, too, there is another element 
in the buildings of almost pure Indian 
design which were constructed. It is 
interesting to note that because of the 
constant passage of ships between the New 
and Old World, tliis Indian architecture was 
even carried into Spain. Interesting ex- 
amples can now be seen there. 

In the city of Guanajauto in Mexico, 
there is the church of San Miguel, which 
from a distance of half a mile bears a most 
extraordinary resemblance to a pure Gothic 
structure of the Old World. When one gets 
within a few rods of it, he sees that it is 
ver\' far from pure Gothic for the detail 
is purely Indian. Tliis cathedral was 
designed and l>uilt by Ceferinco Gutierrez, 
an almost illiterate architect who never 
had been outside of Mexico and probably 
never had seen a plan of a Gothic building, 
much less any detailed plans. It is fair to 
presume that a rough sketch of some Gotliic 
structure was made for him by some fairly 
intelligent white man, and from this rough 
sketch the Indian architect did his work. 
It is perhaps as good an example as can be 
given of the difficulties under which Spanish 
architecture was transplanted to the New 
W\>rld and made into what is now known 
as the Spanish Colonial. As to the school 
itself, enough has already been said to 
indicate that it includes features of almost 
every known school of architecture, from 
the severe Roman to the ornate Cliiruguer- 
esque. Thus there is a limitless field from 
which to draw. By the use of untrained 
architects and artisans, the fine detail of 
all these schools of course was lost, but 
as a substitute for detail there was intro- 
duced a fresh crispness and vigor which the 
old classical schools never possessed. 

When San Diego began making a general 
plan for the Exposition, it was recognized 
that the arcliitecture must be of an extra- 
ordinary sort because of the fact that San 
Francisco, although it had entered the field 
of 1915 exposition work later than San 
Diego, had already gained sufficient funds 
to make it quite apparent that the northern 
exposition would be a colossal affair. 

Instead of trying to rival San Francisco 
in size, San Diego very sensibly decided 
to build an exposition which should be not 
the largest ever built, but the most unique 
and the most beautiful. In the opinion 
of the artists who have visited San Diego, 
the purpose was fulfilled. The gorgeous 
beauty of the grounds impresses one at 
the very outset. Instead of traveling 
through the poorer sections of the city 
and approaching the Exposition over un- 
sightly railway tracks as has been the case 
at more than one world's fair of the past, 
one reaches the San Diego Exposition by 
passing through one of the finest residen- 
tial districts of the city, through a splendid 
open parkway, a portion of the great 1,400- 
acre reservation, and across a majestic via- 
duct, on to the mesa where the Exposition 
Beautiful is built. This viaduct is worthy 
of special attention for it stretches slightly 
over a thousand feet, rising 135 feet from 
the surface of the pool in the depth of the 
Canyon Cabrillo. The viaduct is con- 
structed with seven of the rounded Spanish 
arches, closely related to the ancient 
Roman arch, and gives a taste of old Spain 
at the very outset, even in its name— the 
Puente Cabrillo, for all the streets and 
plazas and gardens of the San Diego 
Exposition are accorded Spanish names. 
The whole idea is based on the fact that 
for the discovery of San Diego and for its 
much later settlement Spain was responsi- 
ble. The history of what is now the 
western part of the United States started 
at what is now San Diego back in 1042, 
when Cabrillo came. It was continued 
actively in 1769 when there came Fray 
Junipero Serra, the first of the padres. 
It was from the old mission of San Diego 
de Alcala that stretch out to the north the 
historic chain of Franciscan missions, 
many of which are still standing and con- 
stitute the most interesting link between 
the hazy days of the padres and the com- 
mercial present. 

At the end of the Puente Cabrillo, just 
past the administration building, is a great 
stone gateway, modeled after the gateways 
of an old Spanish city, and just beyond it 
the Plaza de California, on one side of 
which rises the majestic cathedral structure 
of the state of California; on the other side, 
its arms projecting in the form of cloisters, 




is the FiiK' Arts building of thr purr Cali- I lie ((>[) is a slatnc of vSorni; at I lie rinjht a 

forriia mission typo. In the cnpt is a full Icn-itli statue of CaliriHo, snrnioniitcd 

typical Franciscan mission of the ohl <hiys, hy a bust of his palnm, Carh)s V; at the 

CHjuipped with relics selected from Spanish left is a full length statue of X'iscaiuo, wlio 

and Mexican churches. The cathedral came in KMI^i, surmounted hv a bust (»f 

structure is ])articularl\- W(jrtli\- of note. IMnllipIIl: belou are busts of \aueou\er. 


The great tower can lie seen for miles at 
sea and miles l>ack in the fertile valleys 
which stretch eastward to the mountains 
and south to Mexico, only twenty miles 
away. About the great carved mahogan\' 
door is the elaborate frontispiece which 
accurately portrays the most striking 

>AN l)|i:(iO i:XI'l)SlTI()N 

the first I^ritish explorer, and l*ort(»la, the 
first S[>anish governor. Near the base 
are full length statues of Fray de I'As- 
cension, the chronicler of the Viscaino 
party, and Jaunu', the first white martyr 
of the Franciscan mission j)eriod in Cali- 
fornia. He was butcliered bv the Indians 


events in soutliern California history. At at the old mission of San Diego and is 

iR()\i Tin: SA( KA\n:NTn vallkv lu ildin*. 

buried today in tlie midst of the olive 
orchard which the priests set out and 
which still contains many fruitful trees. 
Down toward the sea is the last of the giant 
palm trees which the padres set out at that 
early date, waving almost over the great 
cross constructcfl only a few years ago out 
of tile of wliich the ancient presidio was 
built. Thus at the very start the visitor 
finds two dominant types of Spanish 
Colonial architecturt\ 

Away off over one of the canyons is the 
New Mexico building wliich is for the most 
part a replica of the ancient mission on the 
rock of Acoma in New Mexico, a curious 
structure which partakes quite as strongly 
of the Indian as the Spanish in its make-up. 
Down the Prado or main street is a typical 
mission structure of a later period. Down 
the esplanade is a building rather typical of 
the municipal structures ftnmd in many 
Mexican cities; there are urban antl rural 
palaces; there are great sanctuaries in 

SAN DlDiO i:\lM>snTON 

whose towers and Carmelite l)elfries swing 
the old mission l)ells. An infinite variety 
is offered by this school and the opportuni- 
ties have been well seized by the artists. 
Extensive use is made of the Spanish 
balconies draped with rugs and orna- 
mented during most of the day by dainty 
Spanish senoritas answering to tlie serenades 
of gaily costumetl troubadours who sing 
from tlie lawns lieneath the l>alcouies. These 
Spanish singers and dancers play a most 
im|)ortant part in supplying atmosphere 
for the Spanish city which has been built. 
In the Plaza de Pananm is a great flock 
t)f more than two tiiousand pigeons, now 
so tame that no visitor who looks as though 
he might have corn concealed about him 
can miss having several of the birds swoop 
down and light on his shoulders. This 
feature, of course, is strongly reminiscent 
of St. ^larks at Venice, but stirs equally 
strong recollections of certain of the squares 
in Andalusia. 

4 06 




Most of the credit for the Exposition 
must be accorded Mr. Frank P. Allen, Jr., 
director of works, who liad charge not only 
of most of the buildings, but also super- 
vised the landscape architecture surround- 
ing the buildings and stretching down into 
the canyons. The CaHfornia building and 
the Fine Arts buikling are the work of 
Bertram G. Goodhue of New York. 

A little discussion of the landscape 
architecture is advisable as calling attention 
to something which is not only quite as 
important as the work on the buildings, 
but also can be considered a part of the 
whole building program. As one stands 
on the Puente Cabrillo, he can look up or 
down the canyon and in the distance see 
a rugged ridge of red eartli from which 
springs only a sparse growth of sage and 
cactus and greasewood, generally classified 
under the term of chaparrel. On close 
examination he finds the surface is baked 
hard by the sun and is almost impervious 
to the roots of any save those sturdy sur- 
vivors of the desert country. Less than 
four years ago the entire park was of this 
sort. When Allen took up the work at 
San Diego, his first job was to dynamite 
practically every foot of soil on the mesas 
and in the canyons. The soil was then 
plowed and harrowed and fertilized and 
before it had time to bake hard again, 
there was set in it the most amazing variety 
of flora that w^orld's fair history has ever 
seen. From the depths of the canyons, 
along the side of the viaduct rise Italian 
and Monterey cypress; a little further are 
great clumps of eucalyptus and acacia, 
each of which families has something like 
two hundred members. There are, of 
course, palms in great varieties and pepper 
trees, familiar to all wdio know southern 
California at all. The cedar, the eugenia, 
the araucaria, the magnolia, melaleuca, the 
pittosporum and the pines in an almost 
infinite variety form the background for 
the wonderful blanket of color supplied 
by blooming trees and shrubs and flowers, 
interspersed with such great care that the 
impression persists that all of this growth 
is natural, and only he who knows the 
tremendous difficulties under which the 
landscape artists worked has any idea of 
the enormous amount of w^ork which was 
done. Over arcade clambers some bloom- 

ing vine, possibly the rose or the clematis 
or jasmine, sometimes the bignonia with 
its brilliant orange, often the giant bou- 
gainvillea sometimes with its superb purple, 
sometimes with its curious red color. 

Back of the arcades and Ivetween the 
buildings lie quiet patios or broad spread- 
ing gardens in which there is an amazing 
jungle of natural growth in brilliant colors. 
Off from the gardens through pergolas 
stretcli paths which lead the visitor on to 
verdant lawns set with clumps of vari- 
colored trees and shrubs. One whole 
section of the mesa is devoted to a pepper 
grove, entirely without buildings and 
intended solely as a resting and loafing 
place for the easterner who never knew 
what real midsummer comfort was until 
he came to southern California, and dis- 
covered that there it was always cool. 

Even the commercial exliibits are helped 
out by California flora. This is most 
notably the case with the farming display, 
an im]M)rtant feature of which is the citrus 
orchard where orange and lemon and other 
citrus fruit is growing the entire year. 
Across from this is the model intensive 
farm with a dainty little model bungalow 
in the center and myriad flowers decking 
the paths and trellises which lead one into 
the purely farming section of this interest- 
ing reservation. 

The frontispiece of the California build- 
ing probably is the most interesting from 
the standpoint of sculpture. There are 
similar offerings, on the east wall of the 
Varied Industries Building, but sculpture 
at San Diego of course, is of a minor sort. 
It w'as felt that the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition would come close to 
filling 19 lo requirements in this field. The 
same is true in some measure of the display 
of paintings, which w^as limited to the 
works of the following eleven painters: 
George Luks, Joseph Henry Sharp, Maurice 
Prendergast, William Glackens, Guy Pene 
Du Bois, John Sloan, Childe Hassam, 
Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George 
Bellows and Carl Sprinchorn, all of 
whom, save the last, contributed several 

Within the California building is another 
collection of paintings and sculpture, in- 
tended mainly to give the visitor an idea 
of the country from which came the amaz- 





ing relics of Maya civilization which fill the 
California l)uilding. This collection to- 
gether with the donations from the United 
States National Museum will remain in 
San Diego as a portion of a great permanent 
museum which is the most important heri- 
tage from the Exposition. The sculptures 
are largely the work of Jean Cook-Smith 
and Sally James Farnham. The paintings 
are principally those of Carlos Vierra. 
There are also of course genuine relics of 
the Maya city of Guatemala and elsewhere. 
In the Indian Arts building is a graphic 
series of panels of southwest Indian life 

by Gerald Cassidy. The photographic art 
also plays an important part in the dis- 
plays of Indian photography by Reed and 
Curtis. In the Women's Headquarters is 
a considerable collection from the brush 
of the late Donald Beauregard, loaned 
by the painter's patron, Mr. Frank Springer 
of New Mexico. 

The San Diego Exposition has con- 
tributed most importantly to architecture. 
There is an impression that the effect of 
this renaissance of the rich school of the 
Spanish Colonial will persist for many 
years to come. 


Presented to the American People 

A COLLECTION comprising eighty- 
two pictures by prominent artists 
of France has been presented by the people 
of the French Republic to the people of the 
United vStates as a token of appreciation of 
the action taken by American citizens 
toward relieving the distress occasioned by 
the Eiu'opean war. This collection has 
been placed and will remain in the custody 
of the National Gallery of Art and is now 
on view in the National Museum at Wash- 
ington. It comprises works in water color, 
crayon, red chalk, pencil, pen and ink, 
pastel, charcoal and India ink. 

The list of those who have contributed 
to this collection is long and will be found 
to constitute the honor roll in art in France 
today. No single school or group is ex- 
clusively represented; there are w^orks by 
academicians, tonalists, impressionists, 
post-impressionists and modernists. The 
majority are sketches some of which were 
probably made as studies, but for this very 
reason they have extraordinary interest 
and value. The drawings by the old 
masters of the Italian Renaissance are now 
the most prized possessions of public 
museums and private collectors. These 
drawings presented by the French people 
to the people of America are the works of 
the masters in art of France today. Such 
drawings and sketches are of a peculiarly 
intimate and personal character and in 
some respects represent the genius of the 

artist even more than his finished works. 
Among the painters represented are Har- 
pignies, Leon Bonnat, Carolus-Duran, 
Francois Flamcng, Jean Paul Laurenz, 
Leon A. Lhermitte, Joseph Bail, Besnard, 
Cottet, Menard, Lucien Simon, Alfred 
Philippe Roll, the aged President of 
the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts; 
Henri Martin, Le Sidaner, Maufra, 

Not only have painters, however, con- 
tributed to this collection, but illustrators, 
cartoonists, engravers and sculptors as well. 
Among the first may be mentioned Jules 
Clieret. Among the sculptors who have 
contributed no less distinguished names 
are found than Rodin and Mercie, each of 
whom has sent a figure sketch. 

Quite a number of the drawings have 
timely significance, representing l)attle 
scenes and pictures of warfare. One or two 
of the sketches were in all probability nuide 
in the trenches. Indeed not a few of the 
artists represented are at the present time 
at the front. Others have given to the 
ranks sons and brothers. It is for this 
reason the more remarkable that the col- 
lection could have been made. 

Probably at no time has a nation received 
a more gallant gift. Undoubtedly it should 
be and will be prized and cherished. To 
all this collection must have interest, but 
to students of art it will ever be of incalcu- 
lable value. 






As Shown in the Recent Exhibition of Old and Modern 
Handicraft in Baltimore, Md. 


Secretary of the Handicraft Club of Baltimore 


,T its best," writes E. Neville 
Jackson in ''Tlie History of sil- 
liouettes," "black profile portraiture is a 
thing of real beauty, almost worthy to 
take its place with the best miniature 
painting; at the least, it is a quaintly 
appealing handicraft, revealing the fashions 
and foibles, the intimate domestic life of 
its day." The silhouette was the pioneer 
of cheap portraiture. Indeed, the word 
"silhouette" may be said to be a synonym 
for economy, being derived from the name 
of that reforming treasurer of Louis XV, 
Etienne de Silhouette (said, by the way, 
to have been an amateur of the art), who 
so endeavored to curb the extravagances 
of the court, that the wits of the time gave 
his name to whatever was cheap. 

Nevertheless, the silhouette had a most 
honorable ancestry, the very earliest repre- 
sentations of the human figure being 
shown in profile. The eighteenth century 
development of shadow portraiture is said 
to have been part of the classic revival, a 
distant following of Greek vase decoration. 

There were several methods of making 


silhouettes, and all, apparently, were used 
at the same time. There was no orderly 
growth of a school. Mrs. Pybus, the first 
known English silhouettist, who cut the 
portraits of King William and Queen Mary 
in 1699, and August Edouart, who died 
in the mid-nineteenth century, both used 
the scissors or knife. Very early there 
were mechanical aids for getting accurate 
likenesses. They needed skillful manipula- 
tion, and those who used them were not 
necessarily fakers. Some silhouettes were 
simply miniatures painted in black, often 
lined with gold or color. A rare type was 
painted on convex glass, so that the actual 
shadow was thrown on tlie white backing. 
But certainly the most interesting were 
those made with knife or scissors, and of 
incredible nimbleness must have been the 
fingers that could cut such intricate de- 
signs and characteristic portraits. 

There was recently shown in Baltimore, 
at the Second Biennial Exhibition of Old 
and Modern Handicraft, under the auspices 
of the Handicraft Club of Baltimore, a 
collection representing all types of sil- 


houettes loaned by individual owners and 
collectors in Baltimore. The oldest, and 
perhaps the quaintest exhi}>ited were the 
delightful groups cut l)y ^Monsieur Herl>er 
of Geneva, and those (in the same frame) 
"in the manner of M. Herber," by Lady 
Hamilton, wife of Sir William Hamilton, 
Minister to Naples in 1777. These were 
formerly owned by Sir Horace Walpole. 
There were several charming painted 

silhouettes by Miers. of the famous London 
firm of IMiers &: Field. Master Hubard 
was represented, the youthful prodigy, who 
began his career at the age of thirteen, and 
toured America when seventeen. The 
Peales were especially charming. But 
most interesting, though latest in date, 
was the large collection of silhouettes by 
August Edouart. 

Edouart was a Frenchman (b. 1789, d. 




1801), who migrated to England, and 
there and in America most of his work 
was done. He possessed an extraordinary 
faculty for catching not only the likeness 
hut the personality of his sitters, and, per- 
liaps unconsciously, the very flavor of the 


period in which they lived. The family 
groui)s were specially tyj)ical. Edouart 
is said to have made more tlian 100,000 
silhouettes, and in his tours of America 
made portraits of almost all the prominent 
men in the country. He made always 

two silhouettes at a time, cutting freehand, 
with folded i)aper. One cutting was 
mounted with a sketclu'd-in background, 
for tlie sitter, and the other put in an 
album and marked with name and date 
as a record for his own use. Edouart 
valued tliese albums of duplicates above 
all things, and his heart is said to have 
been l)roken when in 1849 he was ship- 
wrecked on the Irish coast, barely escap- 
ing with his own life, and losing all but 
nine of his books. It is interesting that 
some of these duplicates found their way 
back to America, and a number of t hem- 
easily identified by their new white 
mounts — -were shown in the Baltimore 
Exhibition. In at least one case the 
silhouette had come, after many years, 
into the possession of a descendant of the 
original of the portrait. 

Two most delightful pictures, painted 
in shadow with india ink, were made in 
Baltimore, and commemorate a tourna- 
ment held at Doughoregan Manor, the 
famous estate of the Carroll family, a few 
miles from the city. This tournament is 
celebrated in the history of local sport, 
and is described fully in Warfield's 
"Founders of Anne Arundell and Howard 
Counties," even to the figure on the 
pedestal. One )>icture shows the tourna- 
ment itself, with knights in vigorous 
action; the other, the return home, a very 
spirited composition, in which the lady 
evidently just crowned "Queen of Love 
and Beauty" is seen, seemingly in a very 
precarious situation, as she clings to the 
side of the cart. A sign-post points the 
way: "two and a half miles to Baltimore!" 

iiesides the silhouettes in black and 
white, profile portraiture was represented 
by a grou]) of wax i)ortraits, some ex- 
quisite Wedgwood medallions, and three 
charming water colors by St. ^lomin, very 
rare examples of his art. 

This collection was shown in connection 
with an exhibition of ^lodern Handicraft, 
which filled an adjoining Gallery, and it is 
especially interesting that there were also 
in the modern collection several examples 
of art in black and white. The Batik 
hangings from the Myer Studios, New 
York, reached a much higlier level of 
artistic expression than was, indeed, even 
attempted in the older work shown. 


There was evident ;', suggestion of Greek 
vase decoration in the balance and rhythm 
of the "Scherzo," designed by Bertram 
Hartman, and the '* Nubian Dancers" 
from the design of Robert Edwards, but 
in their live joy and movement they were 
at once wholly modern and rarely beautiful. 
Never, since the days of the Greeks has the 
shadow been so effectively used in art. 




MAKiox no YD alij:n 



BY A. S. S. 

THE four pain titles \)y Marion Boyd 
Allen reproduced on this and follow- 
ing pages are characteristic of the artist's 
work. To those who attended the recent 
exhibitions of the National Academy of 
Design, Carnegie Institute and Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts they will 
already be familiar. *'The Green Veil" 
was also shown in the summer exhil^it of 
the Albright Gallery, J5uffalo, where it was 
purchased on the opening day by a private 

Mrs. Allen was i>orn in Boston, where 
slie still resides, and received her art edu- 
cation in the scho(jl attached to the Boston 
Art Museum, studying seven years under 

the instruction of Hdniund Tarbell, Frank 
Benson and Philip Hale. 

She is primarily a ])ortrait painter, but 
has an unusual ]>ictorial sense. Her strong 
draughtsmanship and natural feeling for 
color enable her to work very rapidly and 
to carry her pictures to completion without 
losing the spontaneity and aiiinuition of her 
first sketch — one of the most difficult of 
technical achievements. I*ortraits by her 
of well-known Americans are owned by 
some of our museums. That of John Lane, 
the English i)ublisher, has attracted much 
attention in London as well as in lioston. 
It was painted last winter during Mr. Lane's 
brief visit to this countrv. 












An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Published by the Amorican Fcdcrtition of Arts 
215 West 57th Street, New York. N. Y. 
1741 New York Ave, Washington, D. C. 

LKILA :^IECH1JX, Hditor 

Officers of 
The American Federation of Aht^s 
President Robert W. de Forest 

First Vice-President Charles L. Hutchinson 

Secretary Leihi Mechlin 

Treasurer N. H. Carpenter 

Contributing Editors 
Mrs. Herbert Adams Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

Ralph Adams Cram Duncan Pliillips 

A. E. Gallatin John C. ^'an Dyke 

Birge Harrison Frank Weitenkampf 

Publication Committee 
Charles Allen Munn 
Charles W. Ames Francis W. Crownin^hield 

James Barnes Henry W, Kent 

Articles, Photographs and News items are in\ited. 
All contributions will be carefully examined and, if 
unavailable, promptly returned. Contributors will 
kindly address, ^^^ EDITOR. 

1741 New York Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Subscription Price 


OCTOBER, 1915 

J.. 50 A Year 

No. 12 


The exhibition of American Inchistrial 
Art set forth in the National ^Museum at 
Wasliington from May to September, under 
the auspices of the American Federation of 
Arts, manifested botli tlie strength and 
weakness in this important field. Much 
very excellent work was shown, work which 
evidenced both talent and conviction of a 
high and encouraging order. On the other 
hand the showing as compared to reason- 
able possibihties was extremely meagre, 
and proved conclusively that very much 
in the way of development remains both 
to be accomplished and desired. But 
when it is remembered how little has been 
done to secure results in this field the 
wonder is that so much real progress lias 
been made. 

We have in this country not one Museum 
devoted exclusively to Industrial Art. We 
have very few industrial art schools, indeed 
not one that is free. We do not instruct 
our children in this branch of endeavor, 
and as a nation we would seem to dis- 

courage efl'ort along these lines. We have 
imported foreign-made products in great 
quantities, but have taken no pains to invite 
skilled workers to our shores or to establish 
art industries among our own peoi>le. 
Furthermore we have been blind wor- 
shipiHTS of wealth, and liave accejited as 
true coin the poorest of imitations, through 
ignorance. To an extent these C(jnditi<>ns 
still exist, atid will continue to exist for 
some time to come. There must be a 
change of heart as well as of i)oIicy. 1 iitil 
the people really learn to love beauty and 
desire it, we shall lujt liave beauty in every- 
flay life. But it is true tliat almost in- 
variably the peojyle who know the best are 
content with nothing less. And it is 
equally as certain that in this particular 
field of art merit and reward go hand in 
luuid. The opportunity was never greater 
for the upliuilding of Industrial Art in this 
country than today, and though in the 
face of the tragedy of Europe and tlie 
frightful uncertainty of tlie future the 
actual inclination is to be jiassive, tliis is an 
op})ort unity which should not be lost. 
Our part today is to carry on, not merely 
"the torch of art," l>ut those institutions 
which lend stability to civilization and 
look toward the establishment of higher, 

finer ideals. 

* * * 

It was proposed to make this issue of 
Art AND Progukss a special number 
devoted exclusively to the Industrial Arts. 
So rich, however, was the material collected 
for this jiurpose both in (piantity and 
quality that it was decided to abandon the 
original project and instead to run this 
material in the magazine through the 
year, treating sei)arately some special 
subject each month. In this way, it is 
thought, the interest will be continued and 
opportunity given for fuller treatment and 
more copious illustration. 

In adopting this policy Art and Prog- 
re:ss aims to emphasize the importance 
of the industrial Arts, to manifest tlieir 
close relation to the Fine Arts, and to 
furnish information which at the i)resent 
time is by no means readily obtainable, 
but of very consideral)le value in bringing 
about real untlerstanding among artists, 
artisans, manufacturers and the public. 

In this effort as well as in that of assem- 




bling the recent exhibition in Washington 
we have had the heartiest and most hel})fid 
cooi>eration of the several manufacturers 
and makers, whose courtesy and interest 
we take this occasion to gratefully acknowl- 
edge. This fact alone may be regarded 
as a very tangible sign of progress and 
token of future promise. 


Th(> American Federation 





of Arts has issued a tenta- 
tive list of exhibitions for 
tlie season IDlTj-lDKi. This 
list notes twenty-one exhi- 
bitions of different character and includes 
collections of oil paintings, water colors, 
architectural work, original illustrations, 
bronzes, arts and crafts objects, engravings, 
wood block prints, hthographs, etchings, 
Japanese prints, facsimiles, and plioto- 

These exhibitions range in ct)st from $.5 
to $l"-2.) to cacli place when there are six 
jilaces on a circuit. This cost does not 
include local expenses nor trans])ortation. 
To chapters of the American Federation of 
Arts these exliil)itions are sent without fee; 
t<» others a small fee is charged for clerical 
services pro|)ortionate to the value of the 

\u ex])ert jury s(>lects these exhibitions. 
They are listed and routed, insmvd and 
managed from the Washington ofHce. 
The chief advantages of obtaining exhi- 
bitions through the American Federation 
of Arts are oljviously a guarantee t>f merit, 
for all these exhibitions are upheld to a 
high standard, the services of an expert 
jury of selection, and a reduction in cost. 

Application for exhil)itions shoukl be 
made some time in advance, preferably 
Ijcfore the first of October when the ma- 
jority of the circuits are arranged, and 
before exhibitions are sent out a guarantee 
is re(|uired in writing that they will be 
slu)wn for the benefit of the public, i>roperly 
displayed, and the cost promptly paid. 

In addition to the exhibitions regularly 
listed, whicli would seem to meet many 
needs and cover a large field, there are 
in\'ariably two or three special exhibitions 
assembled. For instance, last year, the 
.\nierican Federation of .Vrts sent ttut on a 

museum circuit a collection of paintings 
by contemporary foreign and American 
artists, selected from the Carnegie Insti- 
tute's Annual Exhibition, This year it 
])urposes to assemble and send out on a 
similar circuit, a collection of Portraits 
by the foremost American portrait painters, 
which will be of its kind, the most notaljle 
yet shown. These portraits in many 
instances will l>e of distinguished persons. 
Copies of the i)rinted list and further 
inf\)rmation may l>e obtained by applying 
to the Secretary of the American Federation 
of Arts, 1741 New York Avenue, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

This year for the first time 
LIBRARY ^j^^ American Federation 

EXHIBITIONS ^^^. ^^^^^ 1^^^ ij^^^^^i ^^^^_ 

rately a group of exhibits si)ecially suitable 
for display in public libraries. There are 
no less than sixteen of these, and the cost 
ranges from $5 to $10, plus the charges for 
transportation. Some of these exhibitions 
are listed on both circulars, but a number 
have been separately selected for libraries 
and assembled under the direction of a 
sub-committee composed of Mr. Henry 
W- Kent, of the Metropolitan ^Museum, 
New York; ^liss Mary Ptjwell, of the St, 
Louis Piiljiic Library; and Miss C. ]\L Un- 
derhill, of the Utica Public Library. 

These exhibitions are sent out under the 
same conditions as the otliers. They 
comprise photographs, engravings, etch- 
ings, color prints, original work in color 
and design, and exhibits illustrating the 
making of a book in its various phases. 

As part of its educational 
CIRCULATING ^.^^^|. ^j^^ American Feder- 

LECTURES ^^-^^^^ ^^t> j^^^^ ^^^^^^y ^^^^^ 

typewritten lectures on the subject of art 
illustrated by stereopticon slides. These 
lectures are by authoritative writers and 
are specially prepared for circulation. 
For tlieir appropriate use it is only neces- 
sary to have a good stereopticon, a good 
operator, and a good reader. 

To chapters of the Federation these 
lectures are sent without charge, on receipt 
of a guarantee against breakage; to organi- 
zations which are not chapters a fee of $:5 
is charged. In all cases the cost of trans- 
portation is luirne by the l>orrower. 




These lectures are purposed espcviiilly 
for use in places where authoritative k'c- 
tures eau not be secured. They are in no 
wise intended to take the place of such 
lecturers, a list ()f wlioui will he gladly 
furnished l)y the American Federation of 
Arts upon application. It is further re- 
quired that tliose securing' these lectures 
pro[)ose to give them for tlie heneiit of the 
public with educational intent and not in 
any case for private gain. 

The subjects treated are as follows: 
American Painting, George Inness, Ameri- 
can Sculpture, Civic Art in America, 
American Mural Painting, American Il- 
lustrators, Contemporary Art Movements 
in America, Municipal Art Commissions 
and Their Work, Contemporary Painting 
in Europe ami America, Whistler's Etch- 
ings, Mezzotint Engravings; IJritish Paint- 
ing, Hembrandt, Painters of the Mode, 
Modern Dutch Painting, Sorolla, Furni- 
ture, Tapestry, Lace, The Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts, Art in the Public Schools, 
Design — Its Use and Abuse, Architecture 
in France, Decoration in France, Sculpture 
in France, Painting in France, The Monu- 
ments of Paris and Their History, The 
American Academy in Rome. 

The Special Advisory Committee on 
Lectures is composed of Prof. A. D, F. 
Hamlin of Columbia University, ]VIr. 
Lorado Taft, of Chicago, and Mr. Birge 
Harrison of New York. 

These lectures are sent out from the 
Washington office and application should 
be made as for the exliibitions, to the 
Secretary of the American Federation of 


There are several thousand 
pictures now on view at the 

PICTURES |> i> c T^ 

Pananui-Pacmc E x i)os i - 
tion. These are by both foreign and 
American artists. The Exjxisition closes 
in December, after which, no doubt, por- 
tions of the fine arts exhibit will start out 
on exhibition circuits eastward. Various 
plans for the selection and handling of such 
exliibitions have been for some time under 
discussion. The Carnegie Institute and 
the American Federation of Arts are co- 
operating in obtaining 100 or more of the 
best foreign paintings to be shown in the 
Carnegie Institute and other art museums. 

The paintings inxited for (his exhibition 
have been selected by Mr. J. Alden Weir, 
Mr. William M. Chase, and Mr. Edward 
W, Kedfield. 

'IMuTe is also a plan to secure 100 of the 
forenu)st American i)aintings likewise to 
nudvc a museum circuit which it is un<ler- 
stood will be arranged by Mr. Clyde H. 
Burroughs of the Detroit Art Museum. 

Duplicate copies of the medalled i)rints, 
secured by Mr. Joseph H. Pennell, will be 
shown in the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts in November in conjunction 
with the Phihulelphia Water C(.lor Chd>"s 
Annual Exhibition, after which ihey will 
go to the Brooklx'u Institute and the 
l^ibrary of Congress. 

It may be that a collection of the 
me<lallcd drawings and wat«M' colors will be 
assembled and sent out as a traveling 
exhibition by the American Federation of 
Arts in cooperation with the Philadelphia 
Water Color Club. 

The Brooklyn Institute, it is reported, 
has made apjilication for the entire Swedish 
section for special dis[)lay. The French 
section, it has been said, will renuiin in tiiis 
country until the close of the war. 

Lentil it is definitely ascertained when 
these works o( art will be available, the 
incidental work of dispersing the collection 
being enormous, the plans for circulating 
the exhibitions can not be detailed or 
consummated. It may be that the Exj)o- 
sition management may [)rcfer to retain 
conunand of the paintings obtained through 
its invitation, in which ease the tra\eling 
exhibitions sent out will be under its charge. 
In any event, however, it seems improbable 
that the Exposition collections can become 
available before late winter or early spring. 

The initial number of The 
IXDUSTUIAL MiNMC^otan. which is the 

ART IN It' ' ] I r t' i- 1 I 

otricuil pubncation ot the 

MINNESOTA ^f- I Lit I 1 i /' 

Alnnu.\sota State Art i (un- 
mission, (►pened with an article by Allen D. 
Albert on '*The Asset Value of Art to 
Minnesota." In this article Mr, Albert 
told in an extremely clear manner what 
Colbert did for France in the reign of 
Louis XIV. As he said, '^Colbert's i)laii was 
a simple one which worked to perfection. 
He subsidized the industries of lace 
making, tapestry weaving, furniture mak- 



ing and wood ear\ing, tlius pouring into 
French coffers vast sums which had been 
expended on S])anish and Flemish products. 
He founded the Aca(h"my of l*ainters and 
Sculjitors wiiicli numbered in its ranks 
nuisters of all arts. He ])rovided govern- 
ment sui)port and expert instruction. He 
perfected an organization that oft'ered not 
onl.\' work, but government encouragement 
to any one in the arts and trades. Under 
his administration all the industries of 
France prospered — prt>spered as they should 
today in any country where officials are 
wise enough to adopt a similar plan. 
Furtherm(jre, he established many active 
art inrlustries throughout all rural France. 
As an investment due to one man's far- 
sighted aj)ijreciation of beauty this plan 
has netted for that one government more 
money than any single exploit in the whoh> 
history of the French nation." 

Mr. Albert then asks, what this has 
to do with Minnesota and the Twentieth 
Century? and replies as follows: "Min- 
nesota has a population of '■>..)00,000 people, 
more than 7.5 |>er cent, of whom have a 
clirect Old World art heritage. What a 
resource this really is, and how little effort 
is being nuide to turn this advantage to a 
good account. 

Then comes the vision, "Suppose," he 
says, "the State of Minnesota should 
institute an industrial art program and 
spend in carrying it out as much money as 
was appropriated last year to prevent hog 
ch(»lera. Suppose the women and girls 
throughcuit the rural districts as well as in 
the cities were given an opportunity to 
apply their handicrafts ami suppose they 
were furnished intelligent instruction as 
well as oi>portunity of selling their products, 
what would it all mean? ^lore money, 
more happiness." 

"Colbert would have put these unlimited 
resources to good acc(»unt. Minnesota's 
greatest resource is her i)eople. Her 
greatest need is vision of what those people 
may make of themselves." But really 
Miiuiesota is not pecidiar in this respect. 

' The Metropolitan Museum 

COSTUME ^^^ ^^.^ j^,^^ instituted dur- 

DESIGNINC j^^g ^j^^. j^.j^j summer a 

unicpie and interesting exhibit, a group of 

<lolls exquisitely dressed in costumes of the 

]>ast willi a skill and historical accuracy 
which befits them to serv^e as exami)les for 
costume design. There is a little Burgun- 
dian lady, and a quaint Nuremberg maid, 
a lady of the French Court, a grand dame 
of the fourteentli century in Italy, and 
others. Indeed in the procession of these 
charming manikins an historical pageant 
is presented. The models have been chosen 
from paintings by the old masters, from 
tapestries, and from standard authors on 
costume. Every detail has been carefully 
worked out and while original materials of 
the period were not availalile, and in fact 
would not be desirable in miniature models, 
fabrics have been selected corresponding 
in texture and design as nearly as possible 
to those in vogue at the dates specified. 
The figures measure about fom-teen inches 
in height, and while a uniform model has 
been used throughout the series, the dif- 
ference in the dressing of the hair and the 
varying lines of the head-dress gives to each 
an expression of individual charm. Some 
thirty different styles are illustrated and. 
while this falls far short of being a complete 
series, it gives a general idea of some of the 
more salient features of women's costume 
from the ^Middle Ages to the twentieth 
century. It has been felt that at this time, 
when the American designer is cut off from 
European sources of inspiration, a collection 
such as this, representing, in miniature, the 
style of earlier days, may prove helpful 
in many ways to those interested, and afford 
a broader appreciation of the subject than 
is to be gained from illustrations in books. 

The Cleveland Aluseum of 

FAR EASTERN j^^^ ^^.j^j^j^ j^ ^^ly^ by-thc- 

ART ^^,.^^, under construction, 

has recently received a very important gift 
wliich will enable it to take high rank 
among the art museums in the department 
of far eastern art. A citizen of Cleveland, 
wlio prefers that his name shall be unkiu)wn, 
has placed at the disi>osal of the Museum 
the sum of $50,000 to be expended by 
authority of the Trustees for purchase of 
oriental art, and has also given $100,000, 
the income of which is to be used for main- 
taining or increasing the collection at the 
discretion of the Trustees. 

This gift, now available for the purchase 
of oriental art has made it possible to 



AHT AND riM)(;iu:ss 

secure funds necessary to finance an iinjior- 
tant expedition to the Far East xuulvv tlic 
able leadersliip of IVIr. Langdon Warner, 
who has only recently returned fnini an 
extended trip tln-ough the Orient. Mr. 
Warner will organize an expedition which 
will probably go into the field early next 
year. This is one of the most important 
expeditions sent to the Orient in recent 

It is l>elieved that tlie ]>resent time is 
particularly fortunate for sncli an expe- 
dition which is to have amph^ resources 
to remain in the field a year and a half, and 
an t)rganization sufficient to operate in 
several locations simultaneotisly if ad- 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art estab- 
lished last June a Department of Far 
Eastern Art and ai)pointed as its Curator. 
Mr. S. C. Bosch Reitz. This Department 
will include the arts of China and Japan 
and those of other countries whicli ha\'e 
close artistic affiliation with thenu such as 
Korea and Thibet. For the ])rescnt the 
exhil)ition space devoted to the new de- 
partment will jiecessarily renuiin as it is. 
but with the growth of the Iniilding it is 
hoped that it may be increased both in size 
and in cliaracter. 

^Ir. Reitz is well known among Eiiropean 
collectors as a connoisseur of Oriental 
ceramics, a subject of which he luis made 
a specialty f(jr a number of years. He is a 
native of Amsterdam, but much of his time 
has been si)ent in studv and travel outside 
of H(jlland. 

The MiinieiH)olis Iiistilute 
INDUSTRIAL i* i . ■ i i i- 

oi Arts ui building up its 

permanent collection is 

MINNEAPOLIS i ■ - i i- . 

making a special ii-ature oi 

INSTITUTE • ) * • 1 \ » x t I 

industrial art. In its April 

OF ARTS n n 4- . i • 

JitiUctin were noted in- 
teresting accessions of American glass and 
American furniture, whereas in its July 
issue were illustrated and recorded some 
splendid acfjuisitions in the way of beautiful 
lace. 7'he glass and the furniture were 
purchased, the lace a gift from Mrs. Martin 
B. Koon. The former, as previously stated. 
were American-made. Of the eight pieces 
of eighteenth century American glass, four 
or probably five were examples of tlie cele- 
brated Steigel, made at ]\Ianheim, l*a. 

It is said that the first attempt to estab- 
lish a manufacturing industry in this 
country was the building and e(|iiipping of 
a glass house. One hiin<h-ed and thirty 
years, however, elai)sed after the initial 
effort, before the first successful American 
glass house was founded, and it was twenty- 
five years later when Steigel's establish- 
ment came into existence. 

I'liis manufacturer was lu)rn at Cologne 
in 17^2!), and was commonl\' known as 
"Baron" Steigel, though it seems he had 
no right to the title. This glass house was 
begun in 17(i-t and within a few years was 
imitating the output of the chief glass 
centers of Europe, and desperately c(»in- 
peting with them for the American market. 
The speciuHMis from these furnaces 
recentlx- purchased bv the .Minneapolis 
Institute of Art are w hile flint glass, ]>Iain 
or i>rnamented with engra\'ed design. 
Later the Institute hoju's t(» ac(piir<* 
examples of beautiful eohireil flint glass 
for which this niannfnet nrer was idso 

Among the furniture ])urehased was a 
lowboy dating back to the latti'r part of the 
eighteenth century, the Chipi)endale })eriod 
of American furniture, and is sup|)osed to 
have been made in I*liiladeli)liia. 

The laces are, almost needh'ss to sa\', 
of foreign make. Italian, French and 
Englisli. Not only has Mrs. Koon con- 
tributed to this collection, l>nt gifts have 
been received of extremely interesting and 
\'alual>le pieces from Mrs. F. L. Carpenter, Frances Morris, Mr. Richard (ireeii- 
leaf. and Mrs. Henry Kirke Porter. 

Thus the Institute, while still in its 
infancy, has the nucleus of an extremely 
good lace department. 

'\\\'i> tapestries of (^xeei)- 

TAPESTRIES i- i • , i 

tioiial imi>ortance have 
been |)resented to the Minneapolis Society 
of Fine Arts by Mrs. Charles J. Martin, and 
are now on exhibition in the Minnea])olis 
Institute of Arts. These are mar\*elous 
exami>les of the weavers' art, unsurpassed 
among their kind by any examples either 
in [lublic- or ])rivate collections in this 
counlry. One is a (iothic tapeslr>- of the 
fifle(>nth century, the other is of the Italian 
JU'uaissance, and was woven about the 
middle of the sixteenth century in Florence 



in the celebrated Medici Atelier. The 
subject of the latter tapestry is taken from 
tlie o])ening verses of Dante's Divine 
Comedy and rt^jiresents the aj)pearance of 
Virgil to Dante. The Gothic tapestry was 
woven at Arra.s about 1450, ancl represents 
sumptuously dressed ladies and gentlemen 
hunting with falcons. 

The Metropolitan Museum has recently 
o])ened a new gallery of tapestries and 
textiles, a gallery nearly one hundred feet 
long. Sixteen Gothic tapestries and three 
of the well-known jMortlake hangings fill 
the walls, and with these are shown some 
interesting exam])les of European textiles, 
interspersed with a few specimens of Gothic 
and Renaissance furniture, which have not 
l)efore been shown. 

The BufTalo Guild of Allied 
Arts luis established a 

ALLIED ARTS . ... t -.i 

permanent cratt sliop with 
IN HriFALo ^1^^. ^^,^j^,^.^ ^^^ },ri„ging eon- 

tinually before the public the best hand 
work and affording its members and others 
an outlet for their productions. Last fall 
this (iuild instituted a special exhibit of 
the wtirk of foreigners in Buffalo, in which 
at least seventeen nationalities were repre- 
sented. It gave last spring the beautiful 
''Bird Masque" l>y Percy MacKaye, ^liss 
Hazel MacKaye being in charge and ]Miss 
Sackett designing the costumes. Each 
spring it plans and carries out a garden 
exhibit with lectures by experts, especijilly 
by its President, who is head of the De- 
partment of Landscape Art at Cornell 
University. In its sales rooms there is a 
continuous series of transient exhibits, com- 
prising the works of the foremost craftsmen 
iH)t only in Buffah>, but in all parts of the 
country. Among special exhibits held 
under the ausj)ices of this organization 
during the past year were a loan exhibition 
of ohl samplers, Spanish, Italian, Alsatian, 
English, Scotch, and American; a loan 
exhibit of old brasses, glass, ivory, and 
silver work; an exhibit of book bindings; 
and an exhibit of Italian and Hungarian 
textiles. Tlius through exhibitions and 
informal lectures this organizatit)n is con- 
tinually bringing the craftsmen and the 
public in close comnninication and evidenc- 
ing the fact that the industrial manidac- 
tures, both hand and machine made, are 

in truth deserving of consideration together 
with the fine arts. 

The Art Alliance of 
America announces an ex- 
ASSOCIATED Y^^^y^^i^^ ^^ 1,^ held during 
WITH THE ^j^^ coming December of 
CHILD y^^ ^^ Associated with the 

Child. The scope of this exhibition will 
be extremely wide. Architects are invited 
to sul>mit designs of play-houses, one-story 
buildings such as are frequently found 
upon English estates, but a rarity here in 
America; also of designs for children's 
theatres; painters are asked to send pictures 
and decorations suitable for children's 
rt)oms; furniture makers may contribute 
furniture: pottery makers, pottery, and so 
on through the whole field of endeavor. 
If the response is as general as it would 
seem reasonable to believe it would be, 
this exhil)ition should prove of highest 
interest and importance, and should be 
eagerly sought by other cities after lieing 
shown in Xew York. 



To THE Secretary, 

The AiiERiCAx Federation of Arts: 

I wonder if you realize the field that is opening 
up for the artists in the towns outsiile of large 
cities. Tliere is lots of wealth in these towns and 
people are l)eginning to ])ut money into pictures. 
Every good picture that is sold is a lasting adver- 
tisement, for the friends of the buyer wish to 
show that they can own just as good or lietter 
]>ictures, and tlie news carries to the nearby towns. 
Hence when a good start is ma<le other sales are 
sure to follow. 

Hut unless the peoi)le have real knuwledije of 
art they run the chance of getting inferior works 

The Reading Circles have rendered splendid 
lielp in thi> direction. There are three in our 
town in which art has been studied systematically 
for three years. It was this which led to our 
holding an annual exhtl>ition. I notice too, the 
mo\ement in schools and colleges for art study, 
l)nt frt)m oliservalion I know that even greater 
good arises from these weekly study classes in art. 
Their members do not fail to avail themselves of 
tlie art galleries in the city to supplement their 
work antl when they are ready to buy pictures 
they buy discriminately. 

1 am wondering if study classes in art might 
not be arranged on somewhat the same plan as 
"a college course at home" 




Our counlry lias a wonderful t'ulnrc liolVirc her, 

. but the education has to l>o From the j2;Tound up. 

licnce my plea for the towns as well as the cities. 

Most sincerely, 

M. E. J. 


The Secretary, 

The Federatiox of Arts: 
The exhibition was even more successful than 
I thouijht it would be when I asked if tlie pictures 

might remain for a few days in E with the 

personal guarantee that there would be enough 

appreciation liere to justify ])Iacing E on 

the circuit. 

E is a town of about 1 "2,000 ])eople. There 

had never l)een an exhibition of really good oi! 
paintings here. There was no art organization 
and no provision for financing such an undertak- 
ing. A very large majority of our population liad 
probably not seen a good collection of oil paintings 
before. The lack of these things, however, 
seemed to me to emphasize the need of just 
such an exiiibition. and so in a letter to the |>ublic 
printed in our two daily newspapers I told tlie 
people of the opportunity, estimated the cost of 
the exhibition, and promised if enough people 
were interested in making the exhibition free that 
I would take personal charge of it and arrange to 
liave tlie pictures l>rought liere. 

The response was quite satisfactory and through 
the generosity of the local press, the plan was given 
enough publicity to insure most of the funds 
needed for making the exhibit a success. About 
^-200 was raised in this way and this enabled us 
to fit up a large room attractively and print about 
2.000 catalogues, which were distributed free. 

The good support given by the citizens and tlie 
press made me feel that there would be a good 
attendance, but I was not i>repared for the great 
interest the people felt in the first exhibition of 

good paintings brought to E . Not only the 

town j)eople responded, but the attendance from 
the country around was exceptional and quite a 
number of people came from conununities 100 
miles away. The paintings were with us for eight 
days. There were exactly 7,051 people who 
attended the exhil)ition. This did not include 
some 2,000 school children, who visited tlie gallery 
in the forenoon of each day. The exhil)ition was 
open to the public from 12 o'clock until 5 and from 
7 in the evening until 10, and most of the time 
the room was crowded with people. It was 
not a curious crowd either, but a crowed really 
interested. The event proved conclusively the 
widespread interest in art among people of all 
classes, and especially their supj>ort and jjatronage 
to an exhibition, the standard of which was 
beyond question. 

I believe the popular articles in the newspapers 
were largely resi)onsible for the attendance, 
although I found a good many instances in which 
the school children had brought their i>arents 
and friends in. 

In the absence of any one better qualified to 
speak al>out the pictures, I talked informally 
to those who were interested enough to come out 

in (he evenings of the first few days of I he exhi- 
bition. This gave me a chance to tell of the 
splendid work which the .Vmerican iH^leralioii of 
Arts is doing for tlie people of our country, and I 
am sure you and the others who are resjionsible 
for this splendid work would have felt glad at the 
shf)wiiig of appreciation by our people. 

I think the success of the cxhil)ition can be 
contributed to three things: First of all. the 
]>aiiitings themselves were .so good lliat there 
was no (piestion of doul)t in the minds of the 
I>ul)lic as to their standard. Second, in asking 
for contributions I stated that any amount would 
be acceptable, and tliat it would be better to have 
100 people give 2.> cents than to have one citizen 
give $2;5. The result was a large miml>er of small 
contributions; each contributor, of, per- 
sonally interested in the success of the exhibition 
which he had heljjed to make free to all. 'i'hird, 
the press was exceedingly generous in its sf)ace, 
giving us practically all that we could This 
generosity was due to the fact that locally every- 
thing was free, and also to the fact that they 
understood the motive behind y»)ur splemlid plans. 

This exhibition was a red-letter day for E 

and the surroimding country, and 1 hope that we 
may have anotlier o|>portunilv just as good. 

A. E. 


To THE Editor, 

TiiF<: Amerh'an- Art Annual: 

I would send out a call for a few good artists 
to come here and found an art colony. There is a 
grand field of practically untouched subject matter 
and Lionel Wahlen, late of Paris, and I are the 
only two who are .scratching around on the surface 
at present. We need some good painters to c<tme 
over iuid lielp us to ])ut Honolulu on the map. 
Cordially yours ^'or success, 

D. Howard Hitchcock. 


An Exiiibition of Pbotograpby was held 
at the Toledo Musciini of Art during 
Septeml>er. Among the exhibitors were 
Lejaren A. Hillcr, Gertrude Ka.sehier, Carl 
Struss, Clarence H. White, John Wallaee 
Gillies, Paul Loui.s Anderson, Edward K. 
Dickson, all of New York; Knaffle & Bro.s., 
of Knoxville, Tenn.; L. C. Sweet, of 
Minneapoli.s; Mi.s.s Belle John.son, of Mi.s- 
souri; Miss Jane Reeee, of Dayton; The 
Hutchinson Studio, of Chicago, and the 
Toledo Camera CI no. 

The Associated Artists of Pittsburgli 
will hold their sixth annual exhibition of 
j>aintings at the Carnegie Art Galleries, 
Pittsburgh, from October ^^'-^d to Novend)er 
22d. A prize of $'->()() is offercnl by Mrs. 



Richard A. Kowhuid for the j>ainting 

receiving the most votes from visitors 

to the galleries, one vote lieing allowed 
each person. 

Tliis Association now nnnibers 200 
members, four of whom. Will J. Hyett, 
Leoi>old G, Seyffert, George W. Sotter and 
Arthin* W. Sj:>arks luive been awarded 
medals at the Panama- Pacific Exposition. 
The President is James Bonar. 

A Clnb compo.sed of artists and amateurs 
who make, or are interested in pottery has 
recently been organized in lioston under 
the nam<' of the l5oston Pottery Club. One- 
third of its nnml)er are active members. 
I'nder the aiis[>ices of the Club lectures 
and talks are to be given at the Museum of 
Fine Arts. Its studio and clay rooms will 
be established near the Museum. Until 
the Club installs its own kiln, the work 
will go mostly to Marblehead for firing. 
Mrs. George Mill)ank Hersey, formerly of 
Hartford, is the President, ^liss Margaret 
'Phomas and Miss Mabel Stedman, Vice- 
Presidents; Miss Elizabeth Suter, Secre- 
tar\ : and Miss Mary Patrick, Treasurer. 

A series of ])rizes for the best painting, 
black and white drawing, poster, or sculp- 
ture, on "The Immigrant in America," 
has been offered by Mrs. Harry Payne 
Wliitney. The competition is proposed to 
secure the b(\st possible artistic expression 
of the meaning of "America to the Immi- 
grant" and of "America as the Successful 
Fusion of Many Races." The contest closes 
No\'eml>er 1st. and an exhibition of the 
works submitted will be held from Novem- 
l>er 1st [o December i5th, in Mrs, Whit- 
ney's studio in New York City. All com- 
munications with reference to this compe- 
tition .should be addressed to Miss Frances 
A. Kellor, J)o Madison .Vvenue, New 
York City. 

The School of the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, begins its fortieth year in October, 
and has a record of which any school 
might well be proud. A committee has 
been formed to devise some fitting Avay to 
celebrate this anniversary. Last year two 
new classes were formed, one in etching 
conducted by Mr. Emil H. Richter, of the 
l)ei>artment of l*rints; the other in tlrawing 
arranged for picked pupils from the high 

schools. Both of these classes jjroved 
very successful. A retrospective exhibition 
of student work was held at the time of the 
opening of the New Evans Galleries, and 
during the summer the regular exhibition 
of summer work was shown. 


The last annual Convention of the 
American Institute of Architects adopted 
unanimously the recommendation of the 
Octagon Building Committee to the effect 
that the Institute should, at the earliest 
practicable moment, undertake the raising 
of a fund to be known as the McKim 
^Memorial Fund, to be devotefl to a com- 
plete restoration of the Octagon House, 
outbuildings and grounds. 

Prior to the Convention, the Board of 
Directors had taken the first step toward 
a restoration by authorizing Mr. Glenn 
Brown to prepare a complete set of draw- 
ings of the house and grounds. At tlie 
Convention, ^Ir. Brown made the sugges- 
tion that the drawings be published in 
the form of a Monograph, and the proceeds 
used to defray the cost of the drawings 
and for the improvement of the Octagon 
property. His suggestion was received 
by the Convention with marked favor, 
and he has now nearly completed his work. 
The drawings include a plat of the grounds 
showing old foundations, terraces, stables 
and outbuildings, and elevations, plans 
and sections of the Octagon liuilding and 
the stables; also drawings showing the 
construction of the floors and roof, and 
detail sheets of mantels, plaster work, 
doors and windows. 

The drawings will be about thirty in 
number, supplemented by a number of 
photographic views, and will be published 
on sheets approximately 12 x 18 inches, 
large enough to give a perfect reproduction 
of the beautiful details of the house. 

With the illustrations there will be a brief 
history of the building and of its architect, 
William Thornton, written by Mr. Brown, 
tlian whom there is no one better qualified 
to write of Washington and its builders. 

The Monograph will serve the double 
purpose of preserving an accurate record 
of a building of great historic value to all 
Americans, and of exceptional interest to 




architects as one t)f the best exampk^s of a 
gentleman's house of the Coh)nial period. 

The edition is h'niited, and siihs(Tij>tions 
should he made at once. The suliseription 
will assure to each purchaser a work of 
historical and professional value, and will 
aid in the collection of a fund in honor of a 
past President of the Institute, largely 
through whose efforts the Octagon property 
came into the Institute's possession; a fund, 
the purpose of which is to preserve the 
property in its original state to future 
It is in this interesting historical building 
the American Federation of Arts has its 
main t)ffice. 


R. EYRE. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 
H. Grevel & Co., London, Publishers. 

This monograph was written in conse- 
({uence of tlie delil)erate opinion expressed 
by a great connoisseur to the effect that 
the Isleworth Mona Lisa can be genuinely 
ascribed to da Vinci, 

At the outset, the author states, it 
appeare<l almost hopeless to shake the 
traditions of four centuries, which had 
decreed that the Louvre version was the 
one and oidy version of the portrait. The 
result of his investigation, however, he 
believes to prove incontrovcrtibly the 
validity of the second jiainting. 

The Isleworth ]\L)na Lisa was purchased 
by an Englishman in Italy over one hundred 
years ago, as an original masterpiece of 
Leonardo's and for over a hundred \'ears 
hung in an old manor house in Somerset. 
It was, however, covered so by dirt and 
varnish that all its intrinsic })eauty was 
completely hidden. And thus it came in- 
to the possession of the present owner. It 
was not until it was thoroughly cleaned 
that its })eauty becam" mainfest, and that 
there seemed to be sufficient reason to 
believe it to lie an original niasterj)iece. 

The question of authorization has been 
carefully studied and contemporaneous 
evidence has been brought to bear upon 
the subject with convincing force. This is 
the more interesting to American art lovers 
at the present time, as owing to the dangers 

of the war the [)iclure has been brought 
to this country and is now out of harnrs 
way in safe k(M:])itig in the Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts. 



Litt.I).. Assistant Curator, Department of ('Isiss- 
ical Art, Metro|)olitan Museum of Art. Beini? a 
catalogue of the classical l)roiizes in the collection 
of the >rctro]>olitan Museum of Art. Metropol- 
itan Museum of Art, Publishers. Price $.5.01) net. 

This volume is a (puirto of over 500 pages 
l)ound in paper covers and illustrated by a 
large numl)er of cuts in the text, every 
object of imj)ortance being rei>roduced. 
as well as numerous full i)age plates. 

Under every item in this catalogue are 
given the date of its ac{(uisition, the 
proverance when known, and reference to 
any i)ub]ication of It. The nuiterial has 
been divided into two ])rincij)al classes: 
first. Statues, Statuettes ancl Reliefs; 
second. Implements and Utensils. The 
first class includes tlie works in which the 
chief interest is their sculptural qiudity; 
the second comi)rises the manifold im{)le- 
nuMits made by the ancients in bronze. 

In the various sections the material has 
l)een arranged as far as possil)le chrono- 
logically. Each section is preceded by a 
brief introductory note with reference to 
the chief books or articles <l(uding with the 

Li tlie introtluclion tlu' technical proc- 
esses of bronze-working in anticiuity, and 
the origin of the ancient i)atina, have been 
discussed at considerable length. 

This is really a sumptuous and extremely 
vahiabh^ publicati(ui. 

number of the International Studio, spring, 191.5. 
John Lane Company, New York and London, 
Publishers. Price $3.00 net. 

There are sixty full page plates in this 
volume giving pictures of old English 
mansions as pictured by C. J, Richardson, 
J. D. Harding, Jose|)h Nash, H. Shaw 
and others. The Mitroductory text is by 
Alfred Yockney. The book is edited by 
Charles Holme. 

To architects and also to home builders 
as well as those interested aesthetically in 
all manner t)f expressions of art, this liook 
will be found of interest. 






New Yohk, N. Y. 


Chicago, III. 

INDEX— Continued P^^^ 

Harvest, The (A Verse) Tyhr McWhorter 335 

Holmes, William H Leila Mechlin 11 

Hutchinson, Anne: A Statue by Cyrus E. Dallin 408 

Impressions of a Returned Wanderer. . Rossitcr Howard 278 

Industrial Art at the Art Institute of Chicago Lena M. McCauley 28 

Influence ofW^orld's Fairs on the Development of Art, The . John E, D. Trash 113 

Lending Museums, A Suggestion Alfred M. Brooks 195 

Loss OF RiiEiMS, The. Seward Ilwme Rathhun 50 

Making Art Democratic Ilarve/j B. Fuller, Jr. 58 

Manship, Paul H 20 

Meeting of the Board of Directors of the American Federation of Arts, A 04 

Mexican Pottery Marij Worrall Ilnds-on 101 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The 135 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, A Fine New Art Museum 48 

Modern Idea in Photographic Portraiture, The C. JL Claudy 231 

Monhegan Island J. B. Carringfon 398 

Mural Paintings for a Public High School 394 

New Kind of Art School, A Irene Weir 217 

Newport's Annual Exhibition E. C, B. 404 

O, Scytheman! Spare the Beak! (Verses) Tudor Jenks 78 

Octagon, The. 129 

Pageant of American Art, A (At the Panama-Pacific Exposition) 

Michael JVilliams 337 

Persian, Arabic and Indian Miniatures ... 150 

Portrait Group, A Painting by Harrington Mann 283 

Prints at the Panama -Pacific Exposition. Charles Olvisted 379 

Pyle, Howard . Frank FJ. Schoonover 431 

Real and the Market Value of Pictures, The Alexajider Forbes Oakej/ 319 

Reed, Earl H., Painter-Etcher .Lena M. McCanlei/ 209 

Relief by Francis Grimes, A Adeline Adams 215 

Report of the Secretary, The American Federation of Arts 330 

Roll, Alfred Philippe Cornelia B. Sage 2()3 

St. Mathurin, Larch ant, A Painting by Robert Vonnoh 10 

School Children Visiting an Exhibition in the John Hetron Art Insti- 
tute, Indianapolis 190 

Sculpture and Mural Decoration, at the Panama-Pacific Exposition 

Eugene Neuhaus 304 
Sculpture in the Thirteenth Annual Exhibition of the Architectural 

League of New York, Some 183 

Sears, Taber, Some Church Decorations by Arthur Tloeber 219 

Selection of Artists to Execute Public Works, The Charles Moore 3 

Silver, Some Early x\merican Robert IL Van Court 75 

Sixth Annual Convention, The American Federation of Arts. 197-323 

Southern California, Some Notes from 97 

Statues of Booth and Beecher Edward Hale Brush 158 

Suburban Railroad Station and Its Grounds, The. . . .Robert IL Van Court 177 
Three Paintings Shown in the National Association of Portrait Painter's 

Annual Exhibition 237 

To Watt's Hope (A Sonnet) Aline Fclicifa Corey 100 

Winter Exhibition, The National Academy op Design 126 

Yale Memorial, Four Panels by Henry Hering 494 


1741 New York Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


Robert W. de Forest. PresideiU, 

Chas. L. Hutchinson, First Vice-President* 

Leila Mechlin, Secretary, 
N. H. Carpenter, Treasurer. 


Robert Bacon, Boston. 

W. K. Bixby, St. Louis. 

E. H. Blashfield, New York. 

Mitchell Carroll, Washington. 

Eugene J. Carpenter, Minneapolis. 

Cass Gilbert, New York. 

Archer M, Huntington, New York. 

Hennen Jennings, Washington. 

John F. Lewis, Philadelphia. 

E. D. Libbey, Toledo. 

Elihu Root, New York. 

Mrs. Charles Scheuber, Ft. Worth. 

The American Federation of Arts was organized in May, 1909, for the purpose of 
uniting in closer fellowship all workers in the Field of Art, and encouraging the develop- 
ment of Art and its appreciation in America. 

Its membership is made up of organizations, which become Chapters, and individuals 
who are classed as Associate, Active or Sustaining Members, Patrons or Benefactors. 

The annual dues are as follows: Chapters, from $10 to $50; Associate Members, 
$2; Active Members, $10; Sustaining Members, $100; Patrons are those who con- 
tribute $250 or more, and Benefactors those who contribute $1,000 or more. 

The American Federation of Arts sends out traveling exhibitions, circulates illus- 
trated lectures and publishes Art and Phogress and The American Art Annual with the 
purpose of increasing knowledge and appreciation of Art. 

It earnestly desires the co-operation . of all who are interested in these objects. 
Membership blanks and further information will be furnished, upon request. 

To serve lOlS-lBlS 

Charles W. Ames. 

David Knickerbocker Boyd. 

Glenn Brown. 

N. H. Carpenter. 

Francis C. Jones. 

C. Howard Walker, 

To serve 19U~1917 

Herbert Adams. 
Robert W. de Forest. 
Charles Allen Munn. 
Mrs. Gustave Radeke. 
Miss Cornelia B. Sage. 
G. D. Seymour. 
Lorado Taft. 

To serve 1915-1018 

Mr. Andrew Wright Crawford. 
Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson. 
Mr. H. W. Kent. 
Miss Florence N. Levy. 
Hon. Elihu Root. 
Mr. Marvin F, Scaife.